First, there are unique commitment costs. If an organization doesn't use an available standard, then it has to create, maintain, and support its own formats. It has to document, teach, and police these internal protocols. It will need to source and protect the resources and skills required to keep the non-standard approach afloat. All of these costs will persist, and swell, for the duration of the commitment.
Second, there are lost opportunity costs. Inability to trade with partners, share information across organizational boundaries, and innovate with certainty and speed, will hold the business back and cause measurable failures. Competitiveness will fall and the organization's attractiveness to potential employees will wane. The organization will deem to have isolated itself.
Third, there are knowledge deficits. Without standards, meaningful information is hard and often impossible to capture, collate, and act upon. Process fragmentation is deeply entrenched and the business mission becomes confused. An organization without standards rapidly becomes an organization without knowledge, unable even to recognize the decisions it needs to take, let alone take them in an informed and timely manner.